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(Màj) Amnesty : "Les États-Unis ont illégalement tué des personnes au Pakistan lors d'attaques de drones dont certaines pourraient être considérées comme des crimes de guerre"

Publié par Kiergaard sur 22 Octobre 2013, 12:18pm

Catégories : #Géopolitique-International

Mise à jour :
Le rapport d'Human Right Watch est un autre rapport construit selon les mêmes règles mais qui lui évoque les frappes de drones au Yémen (qui auraient tués plus de civils que de terroristes selon les premiers commentaires). Ce rapport s'intitule : "Between a Drone and Al-Qaeda : The Civilian Cost of US Targeted Killings in Yemen" (Résumé en anglais disponible ici)

(Communiqué de presse d'Amnesty International)
"Les États-Unis ont illégalement tué des personnes au Pakistan lors d'attaques de drones dont certaines pourraient être considérées comme des crimes de guerre, a dit Amnesty International dans un grand rapport rendu public mardi 22 octobre 2013.

Ce rapport, intitulé ’Will I be next?’ US drone strikes in Pakistan, est l'une des études les plus exhaustives réalisées à ce jour sur le programme américain de drones, vu sous l'angle des droits humains.

Il fournit des informations sur les homicides perpétrés récemment dans les zones tribales du nord-ouest du Pakistan et sur l'absence quasi totale de transparence autour du programme de drones américain."

Le rapport constitue principalement en une étude de cas mais la contextualisation et l'analyse de ces cas est très intéressante.

[Le communiqué de presse fournit de très amples informations et je renvoie à sa lecture]


(The Guardian)
"US officials responsible for the secret CIA drone campaign against suspected terrorists in Pakistan may have committed war crimes and should stand trial, a report by a leading human rights group warns. Amnesty International has highlighted the case of a grandmother who was killed while she was picking vegetables and other incidents which could have broken international laws designed to protect civilians.

The report is issued in conjunction with an investigation by Human Rights Watch detailing missile attacks in Yemen which the group believes could contravene the laws of armed conflict, international human rights law and Barack Obama's own guidelines on drones."

(FranceTvInfo)
""Le secret entourant le programme des drones donne au gouvernement américain un droit de tuer supérieur aux tribunaux et aux normes fondamentales du droit international", soutient dans un communiqué Mustafa Qadri, analyste pour Amnesty International au Pakistan.

En s'appuyant sur des exemples, l'ONG appelle Washington à traduire en justice les responsables d'attaques illégales - en notant au passage que même les tirs de drone tuant uniquement des insurgés peuvent constituer des "exécutions extrajudiciaires" - et à offrir des compensations aux familles de victimes innocentes.

L'organisation s'en prend aussi aux "attaques contre les secours", c'est-à-dire lorsqu'un drone bombarde une deuxième fois la même zone alors que les proches des victimes du premier tir et des secouristes s'affairent sur place. Amnesty critique également "l'ambiguïté" du Pakistan, qui considère officiellement ces frappes comme des violations de sa souveraineté, mais juge en privé plusieurs d'entre elles "utiles"."

Quelques extraits marquants du rapport :

- "The fear of the drone attacks always exist in the mind of the local people. How can we know that drone’s missile may not hit our houses? It can hit anywhere." (Un résident)
- "A number of people, including local doctors and medical dispensary operators, said some residents of drone-affected parts of North Waziristan had started taking sleeping pills in the evening as the constant whine of drones overhead and fear of being killed made it impossible to fall asleep naturally."
- "Given that armed groups operate with impunity in North Waziristan, frequently attacking those they accuse of spying for the USA or Pakistan, and given that some elements of the Pakistan state may offer tacit support to the drone program, local residents are reluctant to speak openly about the program and specific incidents"
- "Some of the individuals who spoke to Amnesty International about specific US drone strikes said they had then faced threats for doing so. A handful of individuals were personally confronted by unknown men in plain clothes warning them of dire consequences if they spoke again to Amnesty International investigators about the drone strikes they witnessed"
- "The USA has an obligation under international law to ensure prompt, thorough, independent and impartial investigations are conducted into the cases documented in this report and in all other strikes where there are reasonable grounds to indicate that unlawful killings have occurred"
- "According to Pakistan Foreign Ministry spokesperson Aizaz Ahmed Chaudhry, Pakistan has not formally sought reparations from the USA for deaths, injuries and damages due to drone strikes"
- "A significant challenge to assessing the legality of US drone strikes in Pakistan is uncertainty about which set of international laws and standards apply. This is primarily due to the failure of the US authorities to provide an adequate legal and factual justification for drone strikes, and the total secrecy under which they are carried out. The uncertainty has also been compounded by the possible continued assistance of Pakistan state organs or officials to the US drone program"
- "For example, reports that the USA targets individuals on a ‘kill list’
suggest the USA is not doing a case-by-case analysis of whether those persons are taking direct part in hostilities at the time they a
re targeted. International humanitarian law is clear on this issue: making the civilian population or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities the object of attack is a war crime."
- "Moreover, all governments must prohibit the transfers of drone weapons, their specialist
components and related technology, where there is a substantial risk that the end user will use them to perpetrate or facilitate serious violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law, including war crimes or extrajudicial executions. International transfers of drone weapons, including specialist components and related technology, should be subjected to stringent export controls, and their transfer and use must be carefully controlled and
monitored."

[Je renvoie également aux longues recommandations à la fin du rapport].

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